Pentatonic guitar scales [5 tone scales] are possibly the most popular & most used melodic tone groups on our planet. It is often the first complete scale system a student learns. One way we learn them is using frames (grids, maps, charts).
The pentatonic scale is any scale with 5 tones, yet in Western music, it specifically refers to the Major & minor types. Each of these have a specific formula, or set of tonal relationships that create the sound of Major & minor pentatonic. It can be viewed to be a ‘hollowed out’ Major/minor scale system [it is ‘missing’ the 4 & 7 to the Major, & those same tones are the 2 & 6 to the minor].
The Major pentatonic scale formula is R 2 3 5 6. This scale is the main riff in ‘My Girl’.
The minor pentatonic scale formula is R ♭3 4 5 ♭7. The same 5 tones, just calling a different tone, the root.
I typically use the term ‘frame’ to refer to this particular set of patterns/positions/fingerings.
For our purposes, we use 2 names [starting points] for this scale. G and Em are relatives in the key signature system [they share the ‘same’ key signature].
We first train the scale [both fingerings/positions]. Once we have it in our hands, we use the tone set to melodically improvise. We also build chords. This is our process for working with scales.
This shape is a simple 2 tone per string scale made up of 5 tones [the penta- part]. Within this position, tones are repeated. There are two octaves of E [64 & 41] and two octaves of G [63 & 31].